Plus, Minus, Interesting (PMI)

Also known as: brainstorming

PMI is a brainstorming, decision-making and critical thinking tool used to generate discussion around the positives, negatives and implications associated with a particular idea or concept. It:

  • provides educators with a valuable tool when leading classroom discussions about difficult decisions, issues or situations
  • encourages students to examine ideas and concepts from different perspectives
  • was developed by Dr. Edward de Bono, who also created the Six Thinking Hats


ICT templates

How to use with ICT

Implement the PMI brainstorming technique with your class using collaborative PMI templates. Students consider the plus, minus and interesting points of an issue or event and add their ideas to the document.

Single computer

Use the PMI template on a projector.

External resources

Find out more resources
Title Link Description
PMI chart PMI chart Short description on the PMI chart and a downloadable template from the University of South Australia.
PMI activity explained by Cathy Costello  Cathy Costello explains the PMI activity Extended description about the PMI technique, including examples of other PMI structures.


Links to third-party websites:

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The department accepts no responsibility for content on third-party websites.

Personalised learning

Disability, Learning and Support

When planning to use technology in the classroom it is important to consider the diversity of your learners. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework to guide the design of learning environments that are accessible and effective for all. For UDL guidelines, information and additional materials, visit the CAST website.

Many students require technology as an adjustment to support their access to learning. Adjustments (NESA) are actions taken that enable a student with disability and additional learning needs to access syllabus outcomes and content on the same basis as their peers. Enrol in the Personalised learning with technology online course to help you make more informed decisions regarding technology.


For a range of simple, how-to videos visit the Assistive Technology page on the Disability, Learning and Support website. Resources are organised into four sections; Literacy and Learning, Vision, Hearing, Physical and Motor Skills.


High potential and gifted learning and support

When planning to use technology in the classroom it is important to consider the full range of abilities of all learners. High potential and gifted learners may require additional adjustments and deliberate talent development.  These strategies include differentiation, grouping, enrichment and advanced learning pathways so students can be engaged, grow and achieve their personal best.


Assessing and identifying high potential and gifted learners will help teachers decide which students may benefit from extension and additional challenge. Effective strategies and contributors to achievement for high potential and gifted learners helps teachers to identify and target areas for growth and improvement. School leaders can access the Evaluation and Planning Tool to support strategic improvement planning.


Recognising the diversity of high potential and gifted students represented in classrooms across 4 domains of potential can be explored further by accessing illustrations of practice.


For further support and advice about how to tailor learning for high potential and gifted students from all backgrounds, visit the High Potential and Gifted Education web section, High Potential and Gifted Education Policy or attend one of the professional learning courses on offer.